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The Muscatine Study
The Muscatine Study Overview:
In six biennial school surveys conducted between 1970 and 1981, a total of 11,377 school children from Muscatine, Iowa (predominantly of Northern European origin) underwent 26,919 examinations that measured body size and risk factor levels (School Surveys).
Blood pressure and cholesterol measurements from these school survey examinations, along with measurements from examinations of other childhood populations, have been used to establish reference percentiles that are used by physicians and school nurses caring for children.
Young Adult Follow-up Surveys
Between 1982 and 1991, 2,547 individuals who had been examined during childhood were again examined one or two times as they reached age 23, 28, 33 or 38 years (Young-Adult Follow-up Surveys), body size and risk factor levels were obtained and a health history questionnaire was completed.
The Muscatine Study Longitudinal Adult Cohort
Since the early 1990s, the latest vascular imaging technology has been used to measure the early atherosclerotic process in a representative cohort of 865 of the childhood participants (the Muscatine Study Longitudinal Adult Cohort), with non-invasive measures of coronary artery calcium (CAC), carotid artery intimal-medial thickness (cIMT), and brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) that allow an assessment of subclinical vascular disease.
The Muscatine Study Offspring Cohort
The Muscatine Study Offspring Cohort was established beginning in 2001 for the purpose of investigating associations between cardiovascular risk factors, carotid (cIMT) and abdominal aortic (aIMT) IMT obtained from ultrasound examinations during adolescence and young adulthood. The Offspring Cohort includes 719 offspring of the Longitudinal Adult Cohort members, representing 395 families.
Middle School Survey Cohort
During the 2009-10 school year, school survey examinations of 812 6th, 7th and 8th grade students were conducted in our examination trailer while it was parked at each middle school. During the 2011-12 school year, an additional 516 6th and 7th grade students were examined. Cardiovascular risk factor levels were measured and physical activity, sleep and dietary surveys were completed. Based on the age-sex-specific body mass index (BMI) percentiles from the baseline school survey examinations, 17.8% of male middle school students were overweight (85th £ BMI percentile < 95th) and 23.6% were obese (≥ 95th BMI percentile). The corresponding percentages for female students were 19.2% and 21.8%, respectively. As compared to the reference percentiles for U.S. children and adolescents, 41.4% of males and 41.0% of females were overweight or obese, as compared to the expected 15% (≥ 85th percentile).
"The school children of Muscatine, Iowa, were selected ... for this study, not only because of their geographic proximity to ... Iowa City but also because of the stability of the school population ... 1963 to 1968 school terms, ... found a mean of 98% of each grade level of students progressing from one grade to the next and thus remaining in the Muscatine school system.” Lauer et al., Coronary heart disease risk factors in school children: The Muscatine study. J Pediatr 86:697-706, 1975.